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Psychology: Find BYU Faculty Pubs

The following boxes highlight faculty publications from the last calendar year (2021). Boxes are included for the following departments: Instructional Psychology & Technology Department, Psychology Department, and Counseling Psychology & Special Education Department. BYU author names are highlighted. If you click on the title image, it will take you to the full record of the article. 

Psychology Department

Indebtedness and gratitude motivate prosocial behavior, but no empirical work has examined how they operate when the giver is God. The Transcendent Indebtedness Scale (TIS) was created to measure positive indebtedness to God. Exploratory factor analysis was first conducted (N = 658), and then, the factor structure was confirmed in a second sample (N = 441). The two samples were then merged to estimate models examining the role of transcendent indebtedness in predicting outcomes. Transcendent indebtedness was a unique predictor of higher secure attachment with God, religiosity/spirituality, positive well-being, and prosocial behavior when controlling for gratitude. Transcendent indebtedness also predicted lower self-centered traits and religious dysfunction. The TIS appears to be a valid measurement of transcendent indebtedness to God—a construct with implications in developing prosocial behavior and religiosity in adolescence and emerging adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)


Nelson, J. M., Hardy, S. A., & Watkins, P. (2022). Transcendent indebtedness to God: A new construct in the psychology of religion and spirituality. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.

Questions concerning problematic pornography consumption have been widely discussed, but longitudinal data examining the relationships implicated by problematic pornography use models are rare. To date, two models have been proposed that have sought to elucidate the causal mechanisms involved in a problematic pornography use model, the I-PACE model and the Pornography Problems Due to Moral Incongruence Model. Aim: We sought to clarify this issue by investigating the prospective association between variables integral to previously proposed addiction models. Methods: Using a longitudinal sample (N = 317), and a newly developed measure of pornography consumption, we asked participants to answer questions related to their pornography usage, their distress levels, and individual differences over a six-month time frame during 2017. Main Outcome: Pornography consumption only led to distress when an individual possessed certain individual differences. Moreover, there was no evidence that pornography use mediated or suppressed the relationship between pornography consumption and distress. Results: Using a series of mediation/suppression models, we found evidence to support the structure of existing theoretical models; specifically, pornography consumption amplifies the relationship between individual differences (ie, sexual compulsivity and sexual sensation seeking) and distress (ie, depression and sexual esteem) over a six-month time period. However, we failed to observe an association between pornography consumption and distress when sexual compulsivity and sexual sensation seeking were left unaccounted for within the model, suggesting pornography use likely only results in distress in those with certain individual differences. Moreover, there was no evidence that perceptions of problematic pornography use suppressed or mediated the relationship between pornography consumption and distress. Clinical Implications: These findings suggest that targeting specific individual differences –a la Acceptance and Commitment Therapy—rather than pornography consumption attitudes may be a more effective strategy to reduce problematic pornography use. Strengths & Limitations: One strength of the current study was that we were able to corroborate previously hypothesized models of problematic pornography consumption. Furthermore, this was done using a newly designed measurement of pornography consumption. However, the study was not without some shortcoming. We were unable to test the pornography problems due to moral incongruence arm of the study, something that previous research has indicated may lead to distress. Conclusion: This paper sought to empirically examine models investigating problematic pornography use. Our findings indicate that pornography consumption will only lead to certain sorts of distress in the presence of specific individual differences ie, sexual compulsivity and sexual sensation seeking. Hatch HD, Hatch SG, Henderson E, et al. Examining the Problematic Pornography Use Model: A Quantitative Exploration of Dysregulated Pornography Use. J Sex Med 2022;19:132–143. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)


Hatch, H. D., Hatch, S. G., Henderson, E., Deichman, C., Johnson, D., Esplin, C., Halstead, A., & Braithwaite, S. (2022). Examining the problematic pornography use model: A quantitative exploration of dysregulated pornography use. Journal of Sexual Medicine19(1), 132–143.

In studies of event-related brain potentials (ERPs), numerous decisions about data processing are required to extract ERP scores from continuous data. Unfortunately, the systematic impact of these choices on the data quality and psychometric reliability of ERP scores or even ERP scores themselves is virtually unknown, which is a barrier to the standardization of ERPs. The aim of the present study was to optimize processing pipelines for the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) by considering a multiverse of data processing choices. A multiverse analysis of a data processing pipeline examines the impact of a large set of different reasonable choices to determine the robustness of effects, such as the impact of different decisions on between-trial standard deviations (i.e., data quality) and between-condition differences (i.e., experimental effects). ERN and Pe data from 298 healthy young adults were used to determine the impact of different methodological choices on data quality and experimental effects (correct vs. error trials) at several key stages: highpass filtering, lowpass filtering, ocular artifact correction, reference, baseline adjustment, scoring sensors, and measurement procedure. This multiverse analysis yielded 3,456 ERN scores and 576 Pe scores per person. An optimized pipeline for ERN included a 15 Hz lowpass filter, ICA-based ocular artifact correction, and a region of interest (ROI) approach to scoring. For Pe, the optimized pipeline included a 0.10 Hz highpass filter, 30 Hz lowpass filter, regression-based ocular artifact correction, a -200 to 0 ms baseline adjustment window, and an ROI approach to scoring. The multiverse approach can be used to optimize pipelines for eventual standardization, which would support efforts toward establishing normative ERP databases. The proposed process of analyzing the data-processing multiverse of ERP scores paves the way for better refinement, identification, and selection of data processing parameters, ultimately improving the precision and utility of ERPs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)


Clayson, P. E., Baldwin, S. A., Rocha, H. A., & Larson, M. J. (2021). The data-processing multiverse of event-related potentials (ERPs): A roadmap for the optimization and standardization of ERP processing and reduction pipelines. NeuroImage245.

 The present study investigated how much variability in moral identity scores is attributable to individual differences that are stable over time and how much variability reflects daily fluctuations. Method Participants (N = 138, M age = 25.11 years, SD = 10.77; 82% female) were asked to report the self‐importance of three moral attributes (being honest, fair, and caring) once a day for 50 consecutive days. Ratings were decomposed into between‐ and within‐person variability and analyzed in relation to individuals' self‐reported feelings of integrity and compassion using hierarchical linear modelling. Results Daily measures of moral identity exhibited more between‐ than within‐person variability (64% vs. 36%). Furthermore, feelings of integrity and compassion were more strongly positively correlated with moral identity on the inter‐individual level than the intra‐individual level. Conclusion Overall, findings suggest that moral identity has both trait‐ and state‐like characteristics and might be best conceptualized as a characteristic adaptation evidencing both stability and change. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Krettenauer, T., Lefebvre, J. P., Hardy, S. A., Zhang, Z., & Cazzell, A. R. (2021). Daily moral identity: Linkages with integrity and compassion. Journal of Personality.

This paper introduces a meta-analytic mediation analysis approach for individual participant data (IPD) from multiple studies. Mediation analysis evaluates whether the effectiveness of an intervention on health outcomes occurs because of change in a key behavior targeted by the intervention. However, individual trials are often statistically underpowered to test mediation hypotheses. Existing approaches for evaluating mediation in the meta-analytic context are limited by their reliance on aggregate data; thus, findings may be confounded with study-level differences unrelated to the pathway of interest. To overcome the limitations of existing meta-analytic mediation approaches, we used a one-stage estimation approach using structural equation modeling (SEM) to combine IPD from multiple studies for mediation analysis. This approach (1) accounts for the clustering of participants within studies, (2) accommodates missing data via multiple imputation, and (3) allows valid inferences about the indirect (i.e., mediated) effects via bootstrapped confidence intervals. We used data (N = 3691 from 10 studies) from Project INTEGRATE (Mun et al. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29, 34–48, 2015) to illustrate the SEM approach to meta-analytic mediation analysis by testing whether improvements in the use of protective behavioral strategies mediate the effectiveness of brief motivational interventions for alcohol-related problems among college students. To facilitate the application of the methodology, we provide annotated computer code in R and data for replication. At a substantive level, stand-alone personalized feedback interventions reduced alcohol-related problems via greater use of protective behavioral strategies; however, the net-mediated effect across strategies was small in size, on average. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Huh, D., Li, X., Zhou, Z., Walters, S. T., Baldwin, S. A., Tan, Z., Larimer, M. E., & Mun, E.-Y. (2021). A structural equation modeling approach to meta-analytic mediation analysis using individual participant data: Testing protective behavioral strategies as a mediator of brief motivational intervention effects on alcohol-related problems. Prevention Science.

Relational and emotional vulnerability represent essential problems among patients with personality disorder (PD). Group psychotherapy is a central component of evidence-based PD treatments. Generally, patient and therapist interrelationships predict improvement in therapy. However, although treatment of patients with PD is a more complex process, group processes are poorly elaborated in PD research. Documentation of the psychometric quality of group process measures in PD samples is an important precursor of such research. The Group Questionnaire—GQ is based on concepts of group cohesion and climate, empathy, and alliance and aims to capture the quality of member–member, member–group, and member–leader relationships in group therapy. A three latent factor structure (positive bond, positive work, and negative relationship) has generally been supported. This study aimed to perform a psychometric analysis of GQ administered in a clinical population of patients with PD. Method: The study included 369 patients with PDs attending group psychotherapy in 14 outpatient treatment units on a specialist mental health service level within the Norwegian Network of Personality Disorders in the period 2017–2020. Psychometric analyses included three latent factors and eight subfacets. Results: The three latent factors, positive bond, positive work, and negative relationship, were replicated. Psychometric integrity of the tripartite relationship structure—member–member, member–group, and member–leader, with eight subfacets, was supported. Conclusion: The GQ with three latent factors and eight subfacets can be recommended for future research and clinical practice in patient populations with PD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Pedersen, G., Kvarstein, E. H., Wilberg, T., Folmo, E. J., Burlingame, G. M., & Lorentzen, S. (2021). The Group Questionnaire (GQ)—Psychometric properties among outpatients with personality disorders. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice.

Religion provides a powerful social identity. Building on previous work demonstrating that formerly religious individuals (i.e., religious dones) more closely resemble currently religious individuals than do never religious individuals (i.e., religious nones), we report three studies examining a potential religious residue effect for the endorsement of moral foundations. In Study 1 (N = 312), we found evidence of a stairstep pattern of endorsement of the five moral foundations, descending from currently religious to formerly religious to never religious individuals. Study 2 (N = 957) replicated these findings with a larger sample. In Study 3 (N = 2,071), we found evidence for the religious residue effect in a 4-wave longitudinal study of adolescents and young adults and suggest that the residual effects of religion on endorsement of moral foundations may erode over time. These studies add to a recently burgeoning line of work on the nature and consequences of religious deidentification. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Van Tongeren, D. R., DeWall, C. N., Hardy, S. A., & Schwadel, P. (2021). Religious identity and morality: Evidence for religious residue and decay in moral foundations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin47(11), 1550–1564.

Domestic violence is a serious societal problem that sadly threatens many children. Results from the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) demonstrate that nearly 26% of children are exposed to family violence during their lifetime, including psychological/emotional intimate partner violence, physical intimate partner violence, parental assault of a sibling, and/or other family violence (Hamby et al., 2011). The consequences can be significant. For instance, childhood exposure to intimate partner violence is associated with mental health issues, such as posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms (Hamby et al., 2011). While rates of domestic violence have been declining in the past few decades (Truman & Morgan, 2014), an increase in rates may be occurring from COVID-19. More specifically, Bradbury-Jones and Isham (2020) gave the following bleak warning regarding COVID-19: 'Domestic violence rates are rising, and they are rising fast' (p. 2047). As Bradbury-Jones and Isham (2020) explain, one reason for this rise could be because 'home is often the space where physical, psychological, and sexual abuse occurs' (p. 2047), making increased time at home during the pandemic problematic for sufferers of domestic violence. In all, it is clear that childhood exposure to domestic violence is serious and consequential, as well as a timely issue to consider given the COVID-19 pandemic. Fortunately, results for interventions discussed in the two articles by Overbeek et al. (2017) and Pernebo et al. (2019) give hope that the consequences of childhood exposure to domestic violence can be mitigated through proper intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Arnold, R. A., & Burlingame, G. M. (2021). Treating children exposed to domestic violence: Group-based intervention. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy71(4), 595–602.

The reliability of event-related brain potential (ERP) scores depends on study context and how those scores will be used, and reliability must be routinely evaluated. Many factors can influence ERP score reliability; generalizability (G) theory provides a multifaceted approach to estimating the internal consistency and temporal stability of scores that is well suited for ERPs. G theory's approach possesses a number of advantages over classical test theory that make it ideal for pinpointing sources of error in observed scores. The current primer outlines the G-theory approach to estimating internal consistency (coefficients of equivalence) and test-retest reliability (coefficients of stability). This approach is used to evaluate the reliability of ERP measurements. The primer outlines how to estimate reliability coefficients that consider the impact of the number of trials, events, occasions, and groups. The uses of two different G-theory reliability coefficients (i.e., generalizability and dependability) in ERP research are elaborated, and a dataset from the companion manuscript, which examines N2 amplitudes to Go/NoGo stimuli, is used as an example of the application of these coefficients to ERPs. The developed algorithms are implemented in the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox, which is open-source software designed for estimating score reliability using G theory. The toolbox facilitates the application of G theory in an effort to simplify the study-by-study evaluation of ERP score reliability. The formulas provided in this primer should enable researchers to pinpoint the sources of measurement error in ERP scores from multiple recording sessions and subsequently plan studies that optimize score reliability. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Clayson, P. E., Carbine, K. A., Baldwin, S. A., Olsen, J. A., & Larson, M. J. (2021). Using generalizability theory and the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) toolbox for assessing test-retest reliability of ERP scores part 1: Algorithms, framework, and implementation. International Journal of Psychophysiology166, 174–187.

If an ERP score is to reflect a trait-like characteristic or indicate if an intervention had an effect over time, adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability of that ERP score across multiple testing sessions must be established. The current paper is a companion paper to Clayson et al. (current issue) that applied generalizability theory formulas and the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox to assess test-retest and internal consistency in a dataset of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) assessing food-related cognition. Although ERPs in response to food cues have been related to eating behaviors or assessed during a health intervention, the reliability of food-related ERPs generally has not been tested. Within the generalizability theory framework, we assessed the stability (cf., test-retest reliability) and equivalence (cf., internal consistency) of four commonly used food-related ERPs: the late positive potential (LPP), centro-parietal P3, N2, and fronto-central P3. 132 participants (92 female) completed two testing sessions held two weeks apart. During the sessions, participants completed a passive food viewing task, a high-calorie go/no-go task, and a low-calorie go/no-go task in a counterbalanced fashion. Coefficients of equivalence for all ERPs were excellent (>0.96). Coefficients of stability were moderate-to-low, with N2 scores on the low-calorie go/no-go task showing the highest test-retest reliability (>0.65) and fronto-central P3 scores on the high-calorie go/no-go task showing the lowest (0.48). Results suggest the ERPs in the current dataset have high internal consistency and would be reliable in detecting individual differences, but their test-retest reliability is limited. Reliability of these ERPs may be improved with changes in task stimuli, task instructions, and study procedures. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Carbine, K. A., Clayson, P. E., Baldwin, S. A., LeCheminant, J. D., & Larson, M. J. (2021). Using generalizability theory and the ERP reliability analysis (ERA) toolbox for assessing test-retest reliability of ERP scores part 2: Application to food-based tasks and stimuli. International Journal of Psychophysiology166, 188–198.

Insomnia is a risk factor for suicidal behavior including attempts and death by suicide. We investigated whether insomnia symptom severity was associated with suicidality and death by suicide in patients with psychiatric disorders. Methods: The sample included 180 deceased patients with psychiatric disorders seen at Weber Human Services between 2008 and 2018 who completed the Outpatient Questionnaire-45.2 (OQ) prior to death. Insomnia symptom severity was assessed using item 41 from the OQ. Manner of death was determined by death records and autopsy reports. History of suicidality was determined through electronic medical records. Cases were grouped into four lifetime categories: non-suicidal (n = 30), suicidal ideation (n = 36), suicide attempt (n = 95), and death by suicide (n = 19). Demographic, medical, and psychiatric features of each group were compared using linear regression. Logistic regression was used to determine whether insomnia symptom severity was associated with lifetime suicidality severity grouping, adjusting for psychiatric disorders commonly linked to suicidality. Results: Lifetime suicidality was associated with sleep problems, fatigue, headaches, and psychiatric disorders (i.e. depressive, personality, and trauma-related disorders). Referenced to the non-suicidal group, greater insomnia symptom severity was significantly associated with suicide attempts and death by suicide, with odds ratios (OR) of OR = 2.67, p = 0.011, and OR = 5.53, p = 0.002, respectively, even after adjusting important psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusions: Results suggest that insomnia symptom severity endorsed during a clinical visit is associated with heightened suicidality, especially suicidal behavior. The presence of insomnia symptoms in patients with psychiatric disorders may indicate risk for suicide and is a target for suicide prevention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Simmons, Z., Burlingame, G., Korbanka, J., Eastman, K., Thomas, D., Christensen, J., Jenson, M., Nadorff, M. R., & Kay, D. B. (2021). Insomnia symptom severity is associated with increased suicidality and death by suicide in a sample of patients with psychiatric disorders. Sleep: Journal of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Research44(7), 1–6.

Few studies have longitudinally assessed the relationship between infant stress reactivity and future parenting style. Studies show that stress‐induced plasma cortisol concentrations are stable over development and that they can be utilized as a marker for stress reactivity. This study investigates the relationship between stress‐induced plasma cortisol concentrations in infancy and later parenting behavior in a translational nonhuman primate model. We hypothesized that higher stress‐induced cortisol levels in infancy would predict impairments in maternal behaviors in adulthood. Subjects were rhesus macaque females (N = 122; Macaca mulatta), assessed as infants and again as mothers. At 3–4 months of age, subjects underwent a standardized BioBehavioral Assessment during which blood samples were obtained and they were assessed for behaviorally inhibition. Approximately 7 years later, subjects were observed as they interacted with their own offspring for four 300‐s sessions. Typical rhesus monkey mother‐offspring behaviors were recorded, including approaches and leaves and maternal cradling. Results showed that subjects' stress‐induced cortisol concentrations and whether they exhibited behavioral inhibition as infants predicted later maternal behavior, with high cortisol concentrations and behavioral inhibition predicting high rates of offspring approaches and leaves and low rates of maternal cradling. Results also showed that higher stress‐induced cortisol concentrations in infancy predicted higher scores on the Brown Index, an indication that the subjects' offspring, rather than the subject themselves, initiated changes in proximity. Taken together, these results suggest that individuals that exhibit higher stress‐induced cortisol concentrations and behavioral inhibition at 3–4 months of age are at risk for engaging in less sensitive parenting behaviors as adults. To the extent that these findings generalize to humans, they suggest an important link between stress‐induced cortisol concentrations and behavioral inhibition in infancy and behavior later in life, such that early‐life stress reactivity can serve as a marker for later parenting behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Wood, E. K., Halter, C. M., Gabrielle, N., Capitanio, J. P., & Higley, J. D. (2021). Stress‐induced plasma cortisol concentrations in infancy are associated with later parenting behaviors in female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Developmental Psychobiology63(5), 1098–1108.

Temperament is an individual's nature and is widely believed to have a heritable foundation. Few studies, however, have evaluated paternal and maternal contributions to the triadic dimensions of temperament. Rhesus monkeys are widely utilized to model genetic contributions to human development due to their close genetic‐relatedness and common temperament structure, providing a powerful translational model for investigating paternal and maternal genetic influences on temperament. The temperament of rhesus monkey infants born to 19 different sires and 50 different dams was assessed during the first month of life by comparing the temperament of paternal or maternal half‐siblings reared with their mothers in species‐normative conditions or reared in a neonatal nursery. Factor scores from three dimensions of temperament were obtained (Orienting/Regulation, Negative Affectivity, and Surgency/Extraversion) and ANOVAs were used to assess genetic effects. For paternal half‐siblings, results showed a statistically significant paternal contribution to Orienting/Regulation, Negative Affectivity, and Surgency/Extraversion factor scores. For maternal half‐siblings, results showed a statistically significant contribution to Orienting/Regulation factor scores. When parsed by early rearing condition, results showed a paternal contribution Orienting/Regulation, Negative Affectivity, and Surgency/Extraversion scores for paternal half‐siblings reared in the neonatal nursery, while there was only a paternal contribution to Surgency/Extraversion for paternal half‐siblings reared by their mothers. There was only a maternal contribution to Orienting/Regulation for maternal half‐siblings reared by their mothers. These results show that paternal and maternal contributions to temperament vary by environmental context, and that mothers may environmentally buffer their infants from paternal contributions to their temperament. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Wood, E. K., Hunter, J. N., Olsen, J. A., Almasy, L., Lindell, S. G., Goldman, D., Barr, C. S., Suomi, S. J., Kay, D. B., & Higley, J. D. (2021). Parental genetic contributions to neonatal temperament in a nonhuman primate (Macaca mulatta) model. Developmental Psychobiology63(5), 997–1005.

This editorial introduces the special issue on Diverse Disciplinary Approaches to the Study of Adolescent Religious and Spiritual Development. First, a case is made for the importance of the special issue, focusing on the utility of diverse approaches in providing a richer understanding of the phenomena of interest. Second, a summary is given of the six target pieces in the special issue. These target articles were written by scholars from six disciplines doing work relevant to adolescent religious and spiritual development: developmental psychology, sociology, cultural psychology, social and personality psychology, cognitive psychology, and developmental neuroscience. It is hoped that this special issue strengthens the quality of scholarship in this research area, encourages interdisciplinary work, and enriches our understanding of adolescent religious and spiritual development. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Hardy, S. A., & Nelson, J. M. (2021). Introduction to special issue: Diverse disciplinary approaches to the study of adolescent religious and spiritual development. Adolescent Research Review.

Despite the prevalence of religiousness and spirituality among adolescents, little is known about the psychology of adolescent religious and spiritual development. The purpose of this article is to explain how scholars within the discipline of developmental psychology have begun to approach the topic. Specifically, the article details how developmental theory advances understanding of religious and spiritual development and overviews developmental methods that enable rigorous examination of the structure and function of adolescent religious and spiritual development. A Relational Developmental Systems metatheoretical approach, emphasizing longitudinal methods, is utilized to highlight ideographic and nomothetic aspects of adolescent religiousness and spirituality. Examples of theoretically and methodologically cutting-edge developmental research provide illustration. In conclusion, the article shows that developmental psychology provides insight toward a comprehensive approach to the study of religious and spiritual development and broadens the perspectives of other disciplines, while relying on other disciplines to deepen developmentalists’ research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


King, P. E., Hardy, S. A., & Noe, S. (2021). Developmental perspectives on adolescent religious and spiritual development. Adolescent Research Review.

Barriers to accessing scientific findings contribute to knowledge inequalities based on financial resources and decrease the transparency and rigor of scientific research. Recent initiatives aim to improve access to research as well as methodological rigor via transparency and openness. We sought to determine the impact of such initiatives on open access publishing in the sub-area of human electrophysiology and the impact of open access on the attention articles received in the scholarly literature and other outlets. Data for 35,144 articles across 967 journals from the last 20 years were examined. Approximately 35% of articles were open access, and the rate of publication of open-access articles increased over time. Open access articles showed 9 to 21% more PubMed and CrossRef citations and 39% more Altmetric mentions than closed access articles. Green open access articles (i.e., author archived) did not differ from non-green open access articles (i.e., publisher archived) with respect to citations and were related to higher Altmetric mentions. These findings demonstrate that open-access publishing is increasing in popularity in the sub-area of human electrophysiology and that open-access articles enjoy the 'open access advantage' in citations similar to the larger scientific literature. The benefit of the open access advantage may motivate researchers to make their publications open access and pursue publication outlets that support it. In consideration of the direct connection between citations and journal impact factor, journal editors may improve the accessibility and impact of published articles by encouraging authors to self-archive manuscripts on preprint servers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Clayson, P. E., Baldwin, S. A., & Larson, M. J. (2021). The open access advantage for studies of human electrophysiology: Impact on citations and Altmetrics. International Journal of Psychophysiology164, 103–111.

Technology can provide affordable, accessible mental health care and some research suggests internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (iCBT) can be an effective treatment for various problems and can be an affordable, accessible alternative to traditional treatments. Advantages of iCBT over face-to-face therapy include lower cost, no travel time, easy access, no waitlists, and trackable progress. To our knowledge there have been no studies of iCBT programs used during the course of routine care. This study evaluated the usage and effectiveness of one iCBT program, SilverCloud (SC), in a university counseling center. Methods: Participants (N = 5568) were students at a large, private western university. Participants were either self-referred to the program, chose to enroll at intake as a standalone intervention, or were referred by their treating clinician as an adjunct to regular treatment. Data was analyzed using regression models with robust standard errors that allowed us to take into account the fact that there may be an effect of participants seeing the same therapist. Results: Results indicated that all three groups had comparable outcomes. However, usage was generally low (less than 10% of the program) and SC usage accounted for less than 1% of the variance in outcome. Conclusions: These results suggest that internet-delivered therapy may be a viable alternative to in-person therapy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Pescatello, M. S., Pedersen, T. R., & Baldwin, S. A. (2021). Treatment engagement and effectiveness of an internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy program at a university counseling center. Psychotherapy Research31(5), 656–667.

Cross-sectional research has demonstrated that endorsing, or acknowledging, and frequently thinking about having a drinking identity are uniquely and positively associated with alcohol consumption and risk for hazardous drinking. In the current investigation, we evaluated whether these facets of drinking identity indicated a latent drinking identity variable. We also investigated whether greater identification with drinking predicted subsequent increases in alcohol consumption and risk for hazardous drinking, and whether higher levels of these drinking behavior variables predicted subsequent increases in identification with drinking. Data were collected from participants (N = 422) near their graduation from college and then again eight months later. Drinking identity endorsement and drinking identity thought frequency were positive indicators of a latent drinking identity variable. Identification with drinking was concurrently, positively associated with both alcohol consumption and risk for hazardous drinking at both time points. Greater identification with drinking at the first assessment predicted subsequent increases in alcohol consumption and risk for hazardous drinking. Surprisingly, the drinking behavior variables did not prospectively predict changes in identification with drinking. These findings support an expanded conceptualization of drinking identity, provide further evidence that greater identification with drinking prospectively predicts more drinking behaviors, and suggest that drinking identity should be considered in interventions to reduce hazardous drinking. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Hertel, A. W., Baldwin, S. A., Peterson, K. P., & Lindgren, K. P. (2021). Identification with drinking predicts increases in drinking behaviors (but not vice versa). Addictive Behaviors116.

While non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) occurs in the general population at a surprisingly high rate, with higher rates among certain clinical populations, its etiology is not well-understood. Consequently, the DSM-5 lists NSSI as requiring further research. This study utilizes a translational model of naturally-occurring NSSI to assess the role of early parental neglect and variation in the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTT) in the etiology of NSSI. Subjects (N = 161) were rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) reared in one of three conditions (mother-reared (MR), peer-reared (PR), or surrogate peer-reared (SPR)), and classified as NSSI (n = 18) or non-NSSI (n = 143). Subjects were genotyped for 5-HTT and their behaviors were recorded during an ecologically-meaningful, stress-evoking, intruder paradigm. Two weeks prior to testing, blood samples were obtained and assayed for plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations. NSSI subjects were more likely to be SPR, paralleling human studies showing that individuals that exhibit NSSI tend to have experienced abuse or neglect early in life. Results also indicated that variation in the 5-HTT genotype differentiated the NSSI subjects. NSSI subjects that were homozygous for the L allele exhibited high plasma ACTH and high rates of stress-induced stereotypies; whereas NSSI subjects with the s allele exhibited impulsive behaviors, including frequently approaching the potentially dangerous intruder, high rates of aggressive vocal threats, and more activity. These results suggest that there may be different 5-HTT genotype-mediated NSSI typologies and that both early experiences and variation in the 5-HTT genotype may be important factors in understanding the etiology of NSSI. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Wood, E. K., Kruger, R., Day, J. P., Day, S. M., Hunter, J. N., Neville, L., Lindell, S. G., Barr, C. S., Schwandt, M. L., Goldman, D., Suomi, S. J., Harris, J. C., & Higley, J. D. (2021). A nonhuman primate model of human non-suicidal self-injury: Serotonin-transporter genotype-mediated typologies. Neuropsychopharmacology.

A variety of studies show that parental absence early in life leads to deleterious effects on the developing CNS. This is thought to be largely because evolutionary-dependent stimuli are necessary for the appropriate postnatal development of the young brain, an effect sometimes termed the 'experience-expectant brain,' with parents providing the necessary input for normative synaptic connections to develop and appropriate neuronal survival to occur. Principal among CNS systems affected by parental input are the monoamine systems. In the present study, N = 434 rhesus monkeys (233 males, 201 females) were reared in one of two conditions: as mother-reared controls (MR; n = 269) or without adults with 24-h access to same-aged peers (PR; n = 165). When subjects were six-months-old, they underwent a separation paradigm involving 4, sequential, four-day social separations from their mothers or peers, with each separation followed by three-day reunions with their mothers or their peers. Prior to the separation paradigm, baseline cisternal CSF samples were obtained, as well as at the end of each the four social separations, and after final separation, during a recovery period. CSF was assayed for concentrations of monoamine metabolites and a blood sample was genotyped for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. Replicating earlier landmark findings, PR subjects with the s allele exhibited lower baseline concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), when compared to PR subjects homozygous for the L allele. MR subjects were undifferentiated by genotype. PR subjects exhibited lower CSF 5-HIAA concentrations during baseline, but higher CSF 5-HIAA during social separations, when compared to MR subjects. There were rearing effects for the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) and for the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), with PR subjects showing higher HVA and lower MHPG when compared to MR subjects. These findings indicate that there are long-term deficits in the response of monoamines following early maternal absence. The results of this study confirm and extend earlier findings that early parental absence has deleterious consequences for the development of the monoamine systems, and that these consequences are modulated by the 5-HTT genotype. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Wood, E. K., Gabrielle, N., Hunter, J., Skowbo, A. N., Schwandt, M. L., Lindell, S. G., Barr, C. S., Suomi, S. J., & Higley, J. D. (2021). Early rearing conditions affect monoamine metabolite levels during baseline and periods of social separation stress: A non-human primate model (Macaca mulatta). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience15.

The identification of relationship ruptures in group therapy coupled with repair efforts by the group leader are addressed from a measurement-based care (MBC) perspective. Several MBC systems are now recognized as evidence-based treatments, and these systems typically use self-report assessment of both outcome and relationship measures. After laying a brief foundation of alliance rupture and repair from an individual therapy perspective, the complexity of applying alliance and repair across the multiple therapeutic relationships and constructs found in the group treatment literature is considered. The Group Questionnaire (GQ) is an empirically derived measure designed to capture the multiple relationship structures (member-member, member-leader, and member-group) and constructs (alliance, cohesion, climate, and empathy) in group therapy. Similarities and differences between the GQ and alliance rupture and repair measures are considered, followed by algorithms used to identify rupture and repair in group therapy on the three GQ subscales—positive bond, positive work, and negative relationship. MBC clinical reports are used to illustrate how rupture is identified at both a group and individual member perspective along with information to support repair interventions. Finally, both clinical and empirical reasons for using the MBC approach are considered along with clinical observations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Burlingame, G. M., Alldredge, C. T., & Arnold, R. A. (2021). Alliance rupture detection and repair in group therapy: Using the Group Questionnaire—GQ. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy71(2), 338–370.

In studies of event‐related brain potentials (ERPs), difference scores between conditions in a task are frequently used to isolate neural activity for use as a dependent or independent variable. Adequate score reliability is a prerequisite for studies examining relationships between ERPs and external correlates, but there is no extensive treatment on the suitability of the various available approaches to estimating difference score reliability that focus on ERP research. In the present study, we provide formulas from classical test theory and generalizability theory for estimating the internal consistency of subtraction‐based and residualized difference scores. These formulas are then applied to error‐related negativity (ERN) and reward positivity (RewP) difference scores from the same sample of 117 participants. Analyses demonstrate that ERN difference scores can be reliable, which supports their use in studies of individual differences. However, RewP difference scores yielded poor reliability due to the high correlation between the constituent reward and non‐reward ERPs. Findings emphasize that difference score reliability largely depends on the internal consistency of constituent scores and the correlation between those scores. Furthermore, generalizability theory yields more suitable estimates of internal consistency for subtraction‐based difference scores than classical test theory. We conclude that ERP difference scores can show adequate reliability and be useful for isolating neural activity in studies of individual differences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Clayson, P. E., Baldwin, S. A., & Larson, M. J. (2021). Evaluating the internal consistency of subtraction‐based and residualized difference scores: Considerations for psychometric reliability analyses of event‐related potentials. Psychophysiology58(4).

Short sleep has been linked to adolescent risk of obesity, but questions remain regarding the dietary mechanisms by which this occurs. We tested whether mildly shortening sleep influences how rewarding and appealing healthy adolescents find several kinds of foods. Eighty‐eight healthy adolescents completed a within‐subjects crossover sleep experiment comparing 5 days of Short Sleep (6.5 hr sleep opportunity) with 5 days of Healthy Sleep (9.5 hr sleep opportunity). Following each condition, adolescents completed measures of food appeal and reinforcing value of food across five food types: sweets/desserts, fruits/vegetables, lean meats/eggs, fast food and processed snacks. Adolescents averaged 2.2 hr/night longer sleep periods in Healthy Sleep versus Short Sleep. We observed a significant interaction of experimental order with sleep condition on three of four primary outcomes related to the appeal and reinforcing value of foods (p's < .005). When Short Sleep preceded Healthy Sleep, adolescents endorsed significantly greater appeal (p < .04) and rewarding value of food (p's ranging from <.01 to .048) during Short Sleep (compared to Healthy Sleep). However, when Healthy Sleep preceded Short Sleep, we did not observe a main effect of sleep condition on the same outcomes (p's > .05). This study provides evidence that restricting adolescents' sleep opportunity to 6.5 hr (compared to sleeping a healthy amount) increases the appeal and reinforcing value of a variety of foods, but this may occur only under protracted short sleep. Increased food reward may be one mechanism linking chronically shortened sleep with risk of obesity in adolescence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Duraccio, K. M., Krietsch, K. N., Zhang, N., Whitacre, C., Howarth, T., Pfeiffer, M., & Beebe, D. W. (2021). The impact of short sleep on food reward processes in adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research30(2).

Routine outcome monitoring (ROM) is an evidence-based practice shown to improve psychotherapy outcomes. Assessments of the therapeutic relationship are included in ROM systems with research supporting their value-added benefit. The Group Questionnaire (GQ) is a self-report instrument that assesses the therapeutic relationship perceptions of group members. It was designed for ROM administration to identify relationship deterioration and ruptures in group therapy. Burlingame et al. (2018, p. 116) showed that GQ feedback could identify ruptures and that group leaders could use this feedback to repair ruptures on two GQ subscales. We examined whether multiple, simultaneous ruptures in a single session reduced the effect of feedback. A three-level, multistep variable captured the number of rupture alerts in the same session: one, two, or three or more. We replicated Burlingame et al.’s statistical analysis to determine if the number of simultaneous GQ alerts might better explain the effect of GQ feedback using 374 members (56% female; mean age = 23.5 years) in 58 psychotherapy groups. No effect for the number of simultaneous alerts was found on GQ feedback. A higher number of co-occurring relationship deterioration and rupture alerts does not change Burlingame et al.’s findings. Implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Svien, H., Burlingame, G. M., Griner, D., Beecher, M. E., & Alldredge, C. T. (2021). Group therapeutic relationship change: Using routine outcome monitoring to detect the effect of single versus multiple ruptures. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice25(1), 45–58.

Alliance is considered to be one of the oldest, most well-researched themes in psychotherapy. This article presents a brief history of alliance, its most common definitions and measures used in group treatment, and a meta-analytic review of the alliance-outcome relationship in group therapy. Method: Major databases were searched for articles published between 1969 and 2019. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of published articles that reported the relation between alliance and treatment outcome within the group format. Results: Results from 29 studies including 3,628 patients indicate that the weighted average correlation between alliance and treatment outcome is significant r = .17 (p < .001), with a small effect size (corresponding to d = 0.34). Heterogeneity of effect sizes was low (Q = 36.47, df = 28, p = .131, I2 = 23.2). Two variables were found to moderate the alliance-outcome association (treatment orientation and reporting perspective of alliance). Conclusion: With a substantial link between alliance and outcome established, the importance of therapeutic alliance rupture and repair in group therapy is discussed and treatment guidelines are outlined. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Alldredge, C. T., Burlingame, G. M., Yang, C., & Rosendahl, J. (2021). Alliance in group therapy: A meta-analysis. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice25(1), 13–28.

Heart rate variability (HRV) is considered an index of self-regulatory capacity, and trait compassion predicts healthy HRV and self-regulation. Compassion focused psychotherapy interventions have been shown to increase levels of compassion in the general population but no studies to date have examined if these interventions also increase HRV in a distressed clinical sample. The present study examined whether a 12-week compassion focused therapy intervention administered in group format would improve resting HRV and impact HRV reactivity during self-critical writing and self-compassion writing tasks administered before and after the intervention. A total of 31 participants in a university counseling center completed the intervention and HRV assessments. Resting HRV did not significantly change over the course of the intervention in the overall sample. Only those who showed a reliable increase in self-compassion also had a significant increase in resting HRV post-intervention. Additionally, the self-critical writing task was associated with a significant decrease in HRV, with HRV staying low during self-compassionate writing and then significantly increasing during recovery. Reliable change in self-compassion predicted increased HRV reactivity to self-critical and self-compassion writing tasks following the intervention, indicating greater engagement with the task. Findings support the idea that increased self-compassion increases HRV reactivity and potentially strengthens ability to engage with difficult emotions in psychotherapy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Steffen, P. R., Foxx, J., Cattani, K., Alldredge, C., Austin, T., & Burlingame, G. M. (2021). Impact of a 12-week group-based compassion focused therapy intervention on heart rate variability. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback46(1), 61–68.

 In light of COVID-19, leaders issued stay-at-home orders, including closure of higher-education schools. Most students left campus, likely impacting their employment and social network. Leaders are making decisions about opening universities and modality of instruction. Understanding students’ psychological, physiological, academic, and financial responses to the shut-down and reopening of campuses can help leaders make informed decisions. Participants: 654 students from a large western university enrolled during the pandemic shutdown. Methods: Students were invited via email to complete an online survey. Results: Students reported stress, depression, loneliness, lack of motivation, difficulty focusing on schoolwork, restless sleep, appetite changes, job loss concerns, and difficulties coping. Most wanted to return to campus and felt social/physical distancing was effective but were mixed in terms of testing or masks. Conclusions: Moving to remote learning created physical and psychological stress. Students want to return to campus but do not want to take risk-reducing measures. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Birmingham, W. C., Wadsworth, L. L., Lassetter, J. H., Graff, T. C., Lauren, E., & Hung, M. (2021). Covid-19 lockdown: Impact on college students’ lives. Journal of American College Health.

What values do moral psychologists espouse with regard to what humans should be like? Taking cues from social psychologists concerning the importance of implicit biases in behavior, from theoretical and philosophical psychologists concerning the importance of uncovering and analyzing philosophical assumptions that undergird all empirical and theoretical work, and from anthropologists about the critical role of reflexivity in scholarly analyses, this investigation engages with moral assumptions that lie at the root of the psychological study of morality. Textual analyses of moral psychology’s literature include content analyses and cultural discourse analyses of value themes. These findings illuminate particularly pervasive values, namely, that researchers adhere to the value-free ideal (itself a value) while privileging Western moral values regarding particular moral problems and moral goods that ought to be sought after. It is clear that these pervasive values influence research in important ways at various levels. We argue that it is not possible (nor desirable) to eliminate assumed values from moral psychological research and that a simple epistemic/nonepistemic value distinction is inadequate for deciding which values are appropriate. We rather argue for a deeper degree of reflexivity or 'value disclosure' as a mode of best practice in psychological research on morality and ethics. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Cazzell, A. R., Starks, S., Hickman, J. R., & Hardy, S. A. (2021). Moral values in moral psychology. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology41(1), 35–57.

Our study examined the association between hedonic hunger and body mass and whether caloric intake mediated the association between these constructs in adolescents. One hundred adolescents with overweight or obesity completed measures of hedonic food reward, dietary intake, and height and weight. Exaggerated hedonic food responses were associated with higher body mass. For 16% of participants who had high hedonic hunger, and high body mass, caloric intake mediated the association between hedonic hunger and zBMI. These results suggest that hedonic hunger may override the homeostatic need for energy and may be associated with increased caloric intake, potentiating weight gain. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Kaur, K., & Jensen, C. D. (2021). Does hedonic hunger predict eating behavior and body mass in adolescents with overweight or obesity? Children’s Health Care.

Food-related inhibitory control, the ability to withhold a dominant response towards highly palatable foods, influences dietary decisions. Food-related inhibitory control abilities may increase following a bout of aerobic exercise; however, the impact of exercise intensity on both food-related inhibitory control and broader cognitive control processes is currently unclear. We used a high-powered, within-subjects, crossover design to test how relative intensity of aerobic exercise influenced behavioral (response time, accuracy) and neural (N2 and P3 components of the scalp-recorded event-related potential [ERP]) measures of food-related inhibitory and cognitive control. Two hundred and ten participants completed three separate conditions separated by approximately one week in randomized order: two exercise conditions (35% VO2max or 70% VO2max) and seated rest. Directly following exercise or rest, participants completed a food-based go/no-go task and a flanker task while electroencephalogram data were recorded. Linear mixed models showed generally faster response times (RT) and improved accuracy following 70% VO2max exercise compared to rest, but not 35% VO2max; RTs and accuracy did not differ between 35% VO2max exercise and rest conditions. N2 and P3 amplitudes were larger following 70% VO2max exercise for the food-based go/no-go task compared to rest and 35% VO2max exercise. There were no differences between exercise conditions for N2 amplitude during the flanker task; however, P3 amplitude was more positive following 70% VO2max compared to rest, but not 35% VO2max exercise. Biological sex did not moderate exercise outcomes. Results suggest improved and more efficient food-related recruitment of later inhibitory control and cognitive control processes following 70% VO2max exercise. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Bailey, B. W., Muir, A. M., Bartholomew, C. L., Christensen, W. F., Carbine, K. A., Marsh, H., LaCouture, H., McCutcheon, C., & Larson, M. J. (2021). The impact of exercise intensity on neurophysiological indices of food-related inhibitory control and cognitive control: A randomized crossover event-related potential (ERP) study. NeuroImage237.

o propose a set of internationally harmonized procedures and methods for assessing neurocognitive functions, smell, taste, mental, and psychosocial health, and other factors in adults formally diagnosed with COVID-19 (confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 + WHO definition). Methods: We formed an international and cross-disciplinary NeuroCOVID Neuropsychology Taskforce in April 2020. Seven criteria were used to guide the selection of the recommendations’ methods and procedures: (i) Relevance to all COVID-19 illness stages and longitudinal study design; (ii) Standard, cross-culturally valid or widely available instruments; (iii) Coverage of both direct and indirect causes of COVID-19-associated neurological and psychiatric symptoms; (iv) Control of factors specifically pertinent to COVID-19 that may affect neuropsychological performance; (v) Flexibility of administration (telehealth, computerized, remote/online, face to face); (vi) Harmonization for facilitating international research; (vii) Ease of translation to clinical practice. Results: The three proposed levels of harmonization include a screening strategy with telehealth option, a medium-size computerized assessment with an online/remote option, and a comprehensive evaluation with flexible administration. The context in which each harmonization level might be used is described. Issues of assessment timelines, guidance for home/remote assessment to support data fidelity and telehealth considerations, cross-cultural adequacy, norms, and impairment definitions are also described. Conclusions: The proposed recommendations provide rationale and methodological guidance for neuropsychological research studies and clinical assessment in adults with COVID-19. We expect that the use of the recommendations will facilitate data harmonization and global research. Research implementing the recommendations will be crucial to determine their acceptability, usability, and validity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Cysique, L. A., Łojek, E., Cheung, T. C.-K., Cullen, B., Egbert, A. R., Evans, J., Garolera, M., Gawron, N., Gouse, H., Hansen, K., Holas, P., Hyniewska, S., Malinowska, E., Marcopulos, B. A., Merkley, T. L., Muñoz-Moreno, J. A., Ramsden, C., Salas, C., Sikkes, S. A. M., … Zouhar, I. (2021). Assessment of neurocognitive functions, olfaction, taste, mental, and psychosocial health in covid-19 in adults: Recommendations for harmonization of research and implications for clinical practice. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.

Accurate reward predictions include forecasting both what a reward will be and when a reward will occur. We tested how variations in the certainty of reward outcome and certainty in timing of feedback presentation modulate neural indices of reward prediction errors using the reward positivity (RewP) component of the scalp-recorded brain event-related potential (ERP). In a within-subjects design, seventy-three healthy individuals completed two versions of a cued doors task; one cued the probability of a reward outcome while the other cued the probability of a delay before feedback. Replicating previous results, RewP amplitude was larger for uncertain feedback compared to certain feedback. Additionally, RewP amplitude was differentially associated with uncertainty of presence/absence of reward, but not uncertainty of feedback timing. Findings suggest a dissociation in that RewP amplitude is modulated by reward prediction certainty but is less affected by certainty surrounding timing of feedback. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Muir, A. M., Eberhard, A. C., Walker, M. S., Bennion, A., South, M., & Larson, M. J. (2021). Dissociating the effect of reward uncertainty and timing uncertainty on neural indices of reward prediction errors: A reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP) study. Biological Psychology163.

We suggest that a large data set for the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) components of the scalp-recorded event-related brain potential (ERP) recently published as normative is not ready for such use in research and, especially, clinical application. Such efforts are challenged by an incomplete understanding of the functional significance of between-person differences in amplitudes and of nuisance factors that contribute to amplitude differences, a lack of standardization of methods, and the use of a convenience sample for the potentially normative database. To move ERPs toward standardization and useful norms, we encourage more research on the meaning of differences in ERN scores, including factors that influence between- and within-person variation, and the dissemination of protocols for data collection and processing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Clayson, P. E., Kappenman, E. S., Gehring, W. J., Miller, G. A., & Larson, M. J. (2021). A commentary on establishing norms for error-related brain activity during the arrow flanker task among young adults. NeuroImage234.

The influence of social relationships extends beyond emotional well-being to influence long-term physical-health outcomes, including mortality risk. Despite the varied measurement approaches used to examine social relationships within the health literature, the data can be synthesized using social connection as an organizing framework. This review discusses cumulative scientific evidence of links between various aspects of social connection and mortality, as well as supporting evidence for links with morbidity and plausible mechanisms. This evidence fulfills the criteria outlined in the Bradford Hill guidelines for establishing causality. Despite strong evidence currently available, several gaps remain and will need to be addressed if society is to rise to the challenge of developing effective interventions to reduce risk associated with social disconnection. This evidence has important broader implications for medical practice and public health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Holt-Lunstad, J. (2021). The major health implications of social connection. Current Directions in Psychological Science30(3), 251–259.

Binding visual features into coherent object representations is essential both in short- and long-term memory. However, the relationship between feature binding processes at different memory delays remains unexplored. Here, we addressed this question by using the Mnemonic Similarity Task and a delayed-estimation working memory task on a large sample of older adults. The results revealed that higher propensity to misbind object features in working memory is associated with lower lure discrimination performance in the mnemonic similarity task, suggesting that shared feature binding processes underlie the formation of coherent short- and long-term visual object memory representations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Manga, A., Madurka, P., Vakli, P., Kirwan, C. B., & Vidnyánszky, Z. (2021). Investigation of the relationship between visual feature binding in short- and long-term memory in healthy aging. Learning & Memory28(4), 109–113.

Episodic memory depends on the computational process of pattern separation in order to establish distinct memory representations of similar episodes. Studies of pattern separation in humans rely on mnemonic discrimination tasks, which have been shown to tax hippocampal‐dependent pattern separation. Although previous neuroimaging research has focused on hippocampal processing, little is known about how other brain regions, known to be involved in recognition memory performance, are involved in mnemonic discrimination tasks. Conversely, neuroimaging studies of pattern separation with whole‐brain coverage lack spatial resolution to localize activation to hippocampal subfields. In this study, 48 healthy young adult participants underwent whole‐brain high‐resolution functional MRI (fMRI) scanning while completing a mnemonic discrimination task. A priori region‐of‐interest analyses revealed activation patterns consistent with pattern separation in distinct hippocampal subregions, particularly in the subiculum. Connectivity analyses revealed a network of cortical regions consistent with the memory retrieval network where fMRI activation was correlated with hippocampal activation. An exploratory whole‐brain analysis revealed widespread activation differentially associated with performance of the mnemonic discrimination task. Taken together, these results suggest that a network of brain regions contribute to mnemonic discrimination performance, with the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex as a hub in the network displaying clear signals consistent with pattern separation and regions such as the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex particularly important for successful lure discrimination. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Nash, M. I., Hodges, C. B., Muncy, N. M., & Kirwan, C. B. (2021). Pattern separation beyond the hippocampus: A high‐resolution whole‐brain investigation of mnemonic discrimination in healthy adults. Hippocampus31(4), 408–421.

Intimate partner violence includes psychological aggression, physical violence, sexual violence, and stalking from a current or former intimate partner. Past research suggests that exposure to intimate partner violence can impact cognitive and psychological functioning, as well as neurological outcomes. These seem to be compounded in those who suffer a brain injury as a result of trauma to the head, neck or body due to physical and/or sexual violence. However, our understanding of the neurobehavioral and neurobiological effects of head trauma in this population is limited due to factors including difficulty in accessing/recruiting participants, heterogeneity of samples, and premorbid and comorbid factors that impact outcomes. Thus, the goal of the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium Intimate Partner Violence Working Group is to develop a global collaboration that includes researchers, clinicians, and other key community stakeholders. Participation in the working group can include collecting harmonized data, providing data for meta- and mega-analysis across sites, or stakeholder insight on key clinical research questions, promoting safety, participant recruitment and referral to support services. Further, to facilitate the mega-analysis of data across sites within the working group, we provide suggestions for behavioral surveys, cognitive tests, neuroimaging parameters, and genetics that could be used by investigators in the early stages of study design. We anticipate that the harmonization of measures across sites within the working group prior to data collection could increase the statistical power in characterizing how intimate partner violence-related head trauma impacts long-term physical, cognitive, and psychological health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Esopenko, C., Meyer, J., Wilde, E. A., Marshall, A. D., Tate, D. F., Lin, A. P., Koerte, I. K., Werner, K. B., Dennis, E. L., Ware, A. L., de Souza, N. L., Menefee, D. S., Dams-O’Connor, K., Stein, D. J., Bigler, E. D., Shenton, M. E., Chiou, K. S., Postmus, J. L., Monahan, K., … Hillary, F. G. (2021). A global collaboration to study intimate partner violence-related head trauma: The ENIGMA consortium IPV working group. Brain Imaging and Behavior15(2), 475–503.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in children in both developed and developing nations. Children and adolescents suffer from TBI at a higher rate than the general population, and specific developmental issues require a unique context since findings from adult research do not necessarily directly translate to children. Findings in pediatric cohorts tend to lag behind those in adult samples. This may be due, in part, both to the smaller number of investigators engaged in research with this population and may also be related to changes in safety laws and clinical practice that have altered length of hospital stays, treatment, and access to this population. The ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Pediatric Moderate/Severe TBI (msTBI) group aims to advance research in this area through global collaborative meta-analysis of neuroimaging data. In this paper, we discuss important challenges in pediatric TBI research and opportunities that we believe the ENIGMA Pediatric msTBI group can provide to address them. With the paucity of research studies examining neuroimaging biomarkers in pediatric patients with TBI and the challenges of recruiting large numbers of participants, collaborating to improve statistical power and to address technical challenges like lesions will significantly advance the field. We conclude with recommendations for future research in this field of study. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Dennis, E. L., Caeyenberghs, K., Asarnow, R. F., Babikian, T., Bartnik-Olson, B., Bigler, E. D., Figaji, A., Giza, C. C., Goodrich-Hunsaker, N. J., Hodges, C. B., Hoskinson, K. R., Königs, M., Levin, H. S., Lindsey, H. M., Livny, A., Max, J. E., Merkley, T. L., Newsome, M. R., Olsen, A., … Wilde, E. A. (2021). Challenges and opportunities for neuroimaging in young patients with traumatic brain injury: A coordinated effort towards advancing discovery from the ENIGMA pediatric moderate/severe TBI group. Brain Imaging and Behavior15(2), 555–575.

Sport-related brain injury is very common, and the potential long-term effects include a wide range of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, and potentially neurodegeneration. Around the globe, researchers are conducting neuroimaging studies on primarily homogenous samples of athletes. However, neuroimaging studies are expensive and time consuming, and thus current findings from studies of sport-related brain injury are often limited by small sample sizes. Further, current studies apply a variety of neuroimaging techniques and analysis tools which limit comparability among studies. The ENIGMA Sports Injury working group aims to provide a platform for data sharing and collaborative data analysis thereby leveraging existing data and expertise. By harmonizing data from a large number of studies from around the globe, we will work towards reproducibility of previously published findings and towards addressing important research questions with regard to diagnosis, prognosis, and efficacy of treatment for sport-related brain injury. Moreover, the ENIGMA Sports Injury working group is committed to providing recommendations for future prospective data acquisition to enhance data quality and scientific rigor. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Koerte, I. K., Esopenko, C., Hinds, S. R., Shenton, M. E., Bonke, E. M., Bazarian, J. J., Bickart, K. C., Bigler, E. D., Bouix, S., Buckley, T. A., Choe, M. C., Echlin, P. S., Gill, J., Giza, C. C., Hayes, J., Hodges, C. B., Irimia, A., Johnson, P. K., Kenney, K., … Baron, D. (2021). The ENIGMA sports injury working group:—An international collaboration to further our understanding of sport-related brain injury. Brain Imaging and Behavior15(2), 576–584.

There is evidence that diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is able to detect tissue alterations following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) that may not be observed on conventional neuroimaging; however, findings are often inconsistent between studies. This systematic review assesses patterns of differences in DWI metrics between those with and without a history of mTBI. A PubMed literature search was performed using relevant indexing terms for articles published prior to May 14, 2020. Findings were limited to human studies using DWI in mTBI. Articles were excluded if they were not full-length, did not contain original data, if they were case studies, pertained to military populations, had inadequate injury severity classification, or did not report post-injury interval. Findings were reported independently for four subgroups: acute/subacute pediatric mTBI, acute/subacute adult mTBI, chronic adult mTBI, and sport-related concussion, and all DWI acquisition and analysis methods used were included. Patterns of findings between studies were reported, along with strengths and weaknesses of the current state of the literature. Although heterogeneity of sample characteristics and study methods limited the consistency of findings, alterations in DWI metrics were most commonly reported in the corpus callosum, corona radiata, internal capsule, and long association pathways. Many acute/subacute pediatric studies reported higher FA and lower ADC or MD in various regions. In contrast, acute/subacute adult studies most commonly indicate lower FA within the context of higher MD and RD. In the chronic phase of recovery, FA may remain low, possibly indicating overall demyelination or Wallerian degeneration over time. Longitudinal studies, though limited, generally indicate at least a partial normalization of DWI metrics over time, which is often associated with functional improvement. We conclude that DWI is able to detect structural mTBI-related abnormalities that may persist over time, although future DWI research will benefit from larger samples, improved data analysis methods, standardized reporting, and increasing transparency. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Lindsey, H. M., Hodges, C. B., Greer, K. M., Wilde, E. A., & Merkley, T. L. (2021). Diffusion-weighted imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of the literature. Neuropsychology Review.

Reports an error in 'Dimensions of anxiety and depression and neurophysiological indicators of error‐monitoring: Relationship with delta and theta oscillatory power and error‐related negativity amplitude' by Alexandra M. Muir, Ariana Hedges‐Muncy, Ann Clawson, Kaylie A. Carbine and Michael J. Larson (Psychophysiology, 2020[Sep], Vol 57[9][e13595]). In the original article, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) was partially incorrectly scored. When reverse scoring a subset of the questions, the individual reverse-scored item values were accidentally subtracted from 5 when it should have been subtracted from 6. After fixing this subtraction mistake, all analyses including the PSWQ were re-run. This corrigendum provides the locations of the updated results and supplementary materials, and reports updated statistical values for any portion of the manuscript that uses the PSWQ. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2020-35093-001). Error‐monitoring processes may be affected by transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology symptoms including trait anxiety, worry, and severity of depressive symptoms. We tested the relationship between continuous measures of anxiety and depressive symptomology and neural correlates of error‐monitoring as measured by time‐frequency domain delta and theta oscillatory power and time‐domain error‐related negativity (ERN) amplitude extracted from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Secondary analyses tested for diagnostic group differences in error‐related neural responses in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and comorbid psychiatric disorders. About 178 participants (104 female, M[SD]age = 21.7[4.6]) with a wide range of psychopathology symptoms completed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task and symptom questionnaires. Residualized difference values between correct and error trials for delta/theta power and error/correct ERN amplitude were used as dependent variables. Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and task accuracy showed nonsignificant associations of symptom dimension measures with error‐related residualized delta/theta power or residualized ERN amplitude. Subset analyses on those with confirmed psychopathology diagnoses also did not predict residualized error‐related delta/theta power nor residualized ERN amplitude (nGAD = 14, nMDD = 28, nComorbid = 19, nControl = 85). Taken in the context of the previous literature, results suggest a heterogeneous relationship between depressive and anxiety symptom dimensions and neurophysiological indices of error‐monitoring. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Muir, A. M., Hedges, M. A., Clawson, A., Carbine, K. A., & Larson, M. J. (2021). “Dimensions of anxiety and depression and neurophysiological indicators of error‐monitoring: Relationship with delta and theta oscillatory power and error‐related negativity amplitude”: Corrigendum. Psychophysiology58(2).

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 54(6) of European Journal of Neuroscience (see record 2021-87937-002). In the original article, the second author’s affiliation was incorrect. It should appear as follows: Department of Psychology, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California, USA.] Sedentary behaviors, such as computer use and sedentary video games, are barriers to physical activity, contribute to overweight and obesity among adolescents, and can adversely affect eating behaviors. Active video games may increase daily physical activity levels among adolescents and improve food‐related inhibitory control. We compared the effects of acute bouts of active and sedentary video gaming on event‐related potential (ERP) indices of food‐related inhibitory control, energy expenditure, and ad libitum eating. In a within‐subjects design, 59 adolescent participants (49% female, Mage = 13.29 ± 1.15) completed two separate counterbalanced, 60‐min long video gaming sessions separated by seven days. Immediately after, participants completed two go/no‐go tasks with high‐ and low‐calorie images and N2 and P3 ERP amplitudes were measured. Participants also completed a Stroop task and were given high‐ and low‐calorie snacks to consume ad libitum. Results indicated that active relative to sedentary video games significantly increased energy expenditure on multiple measures (e.g., METs, heart rate, kcals burned) and participants consumed more calories after the active compared to the sedentary video game session. N2 amplitudes were larger when participants inhibited to high‐ compared to low‐calorie foods, suggesting that high‐calorie foods necessitate increased the recruitment of inhibitory control resources; however, there were non‐significant differences for the N2 or P3 amplitudes, accuracy or response times, and Stroop performance between active versus sedentary video game sessions. Overall, sixty minutes of active video gaming increased energy expenditure and food consumption but did not significantly alter neural or behavioral measures of inhibitory control to food stimuli. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Smith, J. L., Carbine, K. A., Larson, M. J., Tucker, L. A., Christensen, W. F., LeCheminant, J. D., & Bailey, B. W. (2021). To play or not to play? The relationship between active video game play and electrophysiological indices of food‐related inhibitory control in adolescents. European Journal of Neuroscience53(3), 876–894.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of after-school sedentary screen time on children’s brain activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. Thirty-two children participated in a randomized crossover study with counterbalanced treatment conditions. Conditions took place on separate days after school and included three hours of active or sedentary play. After each condition, neural activation was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants completed a go/no-go task involving pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. General response inhibition was also measured using the Stroop task. Hunger was measured upon arrival to the testing facility and just prior to fMRI scans. Mixed effects models were used to evaluate main effects and interactions. Significant stimulus by condition interactions were found in the right superior parietal cortex, and left anterior cingulate cortex (Ps ≤ 0.05). High-calorie pictures elicited significantly more activation bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex compared to low-calorie pictures (Ps ≤ 0.05). Stroop task performance diminished significantly following the sedentary condition compared to the active (P ≤ 0.05). Subjective feelings of hunger were not different between conditions at any point. Sedentary screen time was associated with significantly decreased response inhibition and a reversed brain activation pattern to pictures of high- and low-calorie foods compared to active play, in areas of the brain important to the modulation of food intake. Decreased attention, and impulse control following sedentary screen time may contribute to disinhibited eating that can lead to overweight and obesity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Efraim, M., Kirwan, C. B., Muncy, N. M., Tucker, L. A., Kwon, S., & Bailey, B. W. (2021). Acute after-school screen time in children decreases impulse control and activation toward high-calorie food stimuli in brain regions related to reward and attention. Brain Imaging and Behavior15(1), 177–189.

This study evaluated associations between parent–child connectedness and communication, parent feeding behaviors (restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring), and age- and sex-standardized child body mass index (zBMI) in a sample of pre-adolescent children aged 8–12 years. Methods: A community sample of three hundred and eight child–parent dyads completed measures of communication and connectedness. Parents completed a feeding behavior measure and children were weighed and their height was measured. We examined whether parental feeding behaviors and parent–child communication and connectedness predicted child zBMI and whether parental feeding behaviors moderated the association between parent–child communication and connectedness and child zBMI. Results: Feeding restriction was positively associated with zBMI, while both pressure to eat and food monitoring exhibited negative associations with zBMI. Child-reported communication was inversely associated with zBMI and parental pressure to eat moderated this association such that lower pressure to eat predicted a stronger association between communication and zBMI. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with previous research suggesting that parent feeding strategies and parent–child communication are important contributors to child weight status. This study also provides preliminary evidence suggesting that adaptive parent–child communication is associated with lower body mass when parents avoid pressuring their child to eat. Our study provides an important extension of this body of research into middle childhood, a relatively understudied developmental stage. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Lowe, K. D., Lott, M. A., & Jensen, C. D. (2021). Associations between parent–child communication and connectedness, parent feeding behavior, and child body mass in pre-adolescent children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology46(1), 59–68.

This study investigated patterns of cortical organization in adolescents who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) during early childhood to determine ways in which early head injury may alter typical brain development. Increased gyrification in other patient populations is associated with polymicrogyria and aberrant development, but this has not been investigated in TBI. Seventeen adolescents (mean age = 14.1 ± 2.4) who sustained a TBI between 1–8 years of age, and 17 demographically-matched typically developing children (TDC) underwent a high-resolution, T1-weighted 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 6–15 years post-injury. Cortical white matter volume and organization was measured using FreeSurfer's Local Gyrification Index (LGI). Despite a lack of significant difference in white matter volume, participants with TBI demonstrated significantly increased LGI in several cortical regions that are among those latest to mature in normal development, including left parietal association areas, bilateral dorsolateral and medial frontal areas, and the right posterior temporal gyrus, relative to the TDC group. Additionally, there was no evidence of increased surface area in the regions that demonstrated increased LGI. Higher Vineland-II Socialization scores were associated with decreased LGI in right frontal and temporal regions. The present results suggest an altered pattern of expected development in cortical gyrification in the TBI group, with changes in late-developing frontal and parietal association areas. Such changes in brain structure may underlie cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with pediatric TBI. Alternatively, increased gyrification following TBI may represent a compensatory mechanism that allows for typical development of cortical surface area, despite reduced brain volume. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Wilde, E. A., Merkley, T. L., Lindsey, H. M., Bigler, E. D., Hunter, J. V., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Aitken, M. E., MacLeod, M. C., Hanten, G., Chu, Z. D., Abildskov, T. J., Noble-Haeusslein, L. J., & Levin, H. S. (2021). Developmental alterations in cortical organization and socialization in adolescents who sustained a traumatic brain injury in early childhood. Journal of Neurotrauma38(1), 133–143.


Attempts to describe the latent structure of human infant temperament have led some to suggest the existence of three major dimensions. An earlier exploratory factor analysis (EFA) supported a triadic structure of temperament in week‐old rhesus monkey infants, paralleling the structure in human infants. This study sought to confirm the latent triadic structure of temperament across the first month of life in a larger sample of rhesus monkey infants (N = 668), reared by their mothers or in a neonatal nursery. A weekly behavioral assessment was obtained during the first month of life using a subset of items from the widely utilized Infant Behavioral Assessment Scale (IBAS), an instrument designed to measure temperament in infant monkeys. Using the latent constructs proposed by the earlier EFA (Orienting/Regulation, Negative Affectivity, Surgency/Extraversion), multi‐group, multi‐time point confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to confirm the latent temperament structure across rearing groups at each time point (weeks 1–4). Results confirm and extend those of the earlier EFA: latent Orienting/Regulation, Negative Affectivity, and Surgency/Extraversion constructs were present across the rearing groups at each time point, with the IBAS items consistently loading onto the latent factors to a similar degree across rearing groups at each time point. These findings suggest foundational evolutionary roots for the triadic structure of human infant temperament, but that its behavioral manifestations vary across maturation and rearing condition. Similarities in latent temperament structure in humans and a representative nonhuman primate highlights the potential for utilizing translational nonhuman primate models to increase understanding of human temperament. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Wood, E. K., Higley, J. D., Champoux, M., Marsiske, M., Olsen, J. A., Suomi, S. J., & Kay, D. B. (2021). Multi‐group multi‐time point confirmatory factor analysis of the triadic structure of temperament: A nonhuman primate model. Developmental Psychobiology63(1), 65–73.

 Physical distancing during the COVID‐19 pandemic may have unintended, detrimental effects on social isolation and loneliness among older adults. Our objectives were to investigate (1) experiences of social isolation and loneliness during shelter‐in‐place orders, and (2) unmet health needs related to changes in social interactions. Design: Mixed‐methods longitudinal phone‐based survey administered every 2 weeks. Setting: Two community sites and an academic geriatrics outpatient clinical practice. Participants: A total of 151 community‐dwelling older adults. Measurements: We measured social isolation using a six‐item modified Duke Social Support Index, social interaction subscale, that included assessments of video‐based and Internet‐based socializing. Measures of loneliness included self‐reported worsened loneliness due to the COVID‐19 pandemic and loneliness severity based on the three‐item University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale. Participants were invited to share open‐ended comments about their social experiences. Results: Participants were on average aged 75 years (standard deviation = 10), 50% had hearing or vision impairment, 64% lived alone, and 26% had difficulty bathing. Participants reported social isolation in 40% of interviews, 76% reported minimal video‐based socializing, and 42% minimal Internet‐based socializing. Socially isolated participants reported difficulty finding help with functional needs including bathing (20% vs 55%; P = .04). More than half (54%) of the participants reported worsened loneliness due to COVID‐19 that was associated with worsened depression (62% vs 9%; P < .001) and anxiety (57% vs 9%; P < .001). Rates of loneliness improved on average by time since shelter‐in‐place orders (4–6 weeks: 46% vs 13–15 weeks: 27%; P = .009), however, loneliness persisted or worsened for a subgroup of participants. Open‐ended responses revealed challenges faced by the subgroup experiencing persistent loneliness including poor emotional coping and discomfort with new technologies. Conclusion: Many older adults are adjusting to COVID‐19 restrictions since the start of shelter‐in‐place orders. Additional steps are critically needed to address the psychological suffering and unmet medical needs of those with persistent loneliness or barriers to technology‐based social interaction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Kotwal, A. A., Holt-Lunstad, J., Newmark, R. L., Cenzer, I., Smith, A. K., Covinsky, K. E., Escueta, D. P., Lee, J. M., & Perissinotto, C. M. (2021). Social isolation and loneliness among San Francisco Bay Area older adults during the COVID‐19 shelter‐in‐place orders. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society69(1), 20–29.


Discusses the effects of social isolation on mental and physical well-being. Public health concerns about social isolation and loneliness were growing internationally even prior to the pandemic. In 2018, the UK appointed a Loneliness Minister and published a national strategy for tackling loneliness. In the US, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released, just two weeks prior to the declaration of the pandemic, an expert consensus report on the relevance of social isolation and loneliness in older adults for the health care system. Nonetheless, social isolation and loneliness have generally been under-recognized and under-appreciated relative to the evidence supporting their public health importance. Social isolation and loneliness may even influence susceptibility to the COVID-19 infection. Individuals with mental health conditions are more likely to be socially isolated and lonely. Steps to limited social contact associated with the global pandemic are becoming more persistent in nature, and both short-term and longer-term public health concerns will emerge if the effects of social isolation and loneliness are not mitigated. We cannot take an either-or position, pitting the dangers of COVID-19 against the dangers of social isolation and loneliness. We must find a way to address both risks to promote public health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Holt, L. J. (2021). A pandemic of social isolation? World Psychiatry20(1), 55–56.

Previous studies indicate that moderate‐to‐high ethanol (EtOH) concentrations enhance dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the mesolimbic DA system from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projecting to the nucleus accumbens core (NAc). However, voltammetry studies demonstrate that moderate‐to‐high EtOH concentrations decrease evoked DA release at NAc terminals. The involvement of γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABAARs), glycine (GLY) receptors (GLYRs) and cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in mediating EtOH inhibition of evoked NAc DA release were examined. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry, electrophysiology, optogenetics and immunohistochemistry techniques were used to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic EtOH exposure on DA release and CIN activity in C57/BL6, CD‐1, transgenic mice and δ‐subunit knockout (KO) mice (δ−/−). Ethanol decreased DA release in mice with an IC50 of 80 mM ex vivo and 2.0 g/kg in vivo. GABA and GLY decreased evoked DA release at 1–10 mM. Typical GABAAR agonists inhibited DA release at high concentrations. Typical GABAAR antagonists had minimal effects on EtOH inhibition of evoked DA release. However, EtOH inhibition of DA release was blocked by the α4β3δ GABAAR antagonist Ro15‐4513, the GLYR antagonist strychnine and by the GABA ρ1 (Rho‐1) antagonist TPMPA (10 μM) and reduced significantly in GABAAR δ−/− mice. Rho‐1 expression was observed in CINs. Ethanol inhibited GABAergic synaptic input to CINs from the VTA and enhanced firing rate, both of which were blocked by TPMPA. Results herein suggest that EtOH inhibition of DA release in the NAc is modulated by GLYRs and atypical GABAARs on CINs containing δ‐ and Rho‐subunits. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)


Yorgason, J. T., Wadsworth, H. A., Anderson, E. J., Williams, B. M., Brundage, J. N., Hedges, D. M., Stockard, A. L., Jones, S. T., Arthur, S. B., Hansen, D. M., Schilaty, N. D., Jang, E. Y., Lee, A. M., Wallner, M., & Steffensen, S. C. (2022). Modulation of dopamine release by ethanol is mediated by atypical GABAA receptors on cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens. Addiction Biology27(1).

The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a GABAergic afferent to midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, has emerged as an integral player in both rewarding and nociceptive responses. While previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture modulates DA transmission in the mesolimbic reward system originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and can reduce drug self‐administration, the central links between peripheral acupuncture signals and brain reward systems are not well‐characterized. Thus, we hypothesised that acupuncture would elicit inhibitory signals from RMTg neurons to brain reward systems. Acupuncture reduced acute cocaine‐induced locomotor activity and DA release in a point‐specific manner, which was blocked by optogenetic silencing or chemical lesion of the RMTg. The acupuncture effect was mimicked by chemical activation of the RMTg. Acupuncture activated RMTg GABA neurons. In addition, the inhibitory effects of acupuncture on acute cocaine‐induced locomotor activity were prevented by electrolytic lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb) or fasciculus retroflexus (FR), areas known to project to the RMTg. These findings suggest that acupuncture recruits the RMTg to reduce the psychomotor responses enhanced by acute cocaine. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Chang, S., Fan, Y., Lee, S. M., Ryu, Y., Lee, B. H., Kim, S. C., Bills, K. B., Steffensen, S. C., Yang, C. H., & Kim, H. Y. (2021). Acupuncture reduces cocaine psychomotor responses by activating the rostromedial tegmental nucleus. Addiction Biology26(6).

The 2010 earthquake in Haiti, an urgent crisis, occurred in the context of persistent social dysfunctions, amplifying both the chronic poor living conditions and adversities for children and families. The present study sought to gain better understanding of the ways Haitian children respond during times of adversity. The House-Tree-Person (HTP) drawing test, culturally adapted for Haitians (Roysircar et al., 2017, 2019a, 2019b), was used to assess Resilience and Vulnerability in 75 Haitian children’s 225 drawings to map the spatial configurations of their trauma experiences in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake and continuous trauma. Assessment data also included interviews with child self-report measures of self-esteem perceived by self, peers, and family; posttraumatic symptoms; and self-concept. Data analyses involved standardization of sample scores and reliability tests. Classical multidimensional scaling (MDS) examined relationships among variables of resilience, vulnerability, self-esteem, posttraumatic symptoms, and self-concept. MDS stress was reduced considerably with two dimensions, and there was minimal further reduction in stress with three or more dimensions. Furthermore, the two latent dimensions in Haitian children’s mental health, called Feeling Unloved and Balance of Good and Evil, were interpretable within the conceptualization of the study and the literature on Haitians’ and other disaster survivors’ adaptive worldview. The authors’ long-term investment in the people of Haiti increased trust, participation, research rigor, and cultural alignment of interventions, including the adaption of the HTP as a culturally sensitive and clinically useful instrument. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Roysircar, G., & O’Grady, K. (2021). Children’s disaster trauma in Haiti: Configurations of similarities and dissimilarities in experiences. Psychological Services.

The purpose of this study was (1) to examine whether three domains of a parent's functioning—parent distress, interpersonal relationships, and social role performance—changed over the course of their child's treatment, (2) to examine how these factors as measured at intake predicted youth progress in psychotherapy, and (3) to examine whether changes in these parent factors over the course of youth psychotherapy were associated with changes in youth symptoms. Method: Participants were 339 youth, ages 4–17 and their parents from a community outpatient treatment setting undergoing usual care. Parent and child outcomes were examined across five time points over the course of child treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the relationship between parent domains and youth progress in therapy. Results: Results suggested that parent domains significantly predicted their child's symptoms at intake as well as change in psychotherapy. In addition, parent domains improved over the course of youth treatment and the progression of these changes was related to the progression of changes in youth scores across the course of treatment. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the important relationship between youth and parent functioning in the context of treatment of youth mental health issues. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Packard, A. E., Warren, J. S., & Linford, L. B. (2021). Parent functioning and child psychotherapy outcomes: Predicting outcomes in usual care. Journal of Clinical Psychology77(1), 49–59.

Methamphetamine (METH) enhances dopamine (DA) transmission in the mesolimbic system implicated in its reinforcing effects. Our previous studies have shown that acupuncture attenuates drug‐seeking behaviors by modulating GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area and DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the striatum. The effects of acupuncture on METH‐induced behaviors and its mediation by neural pathways remain a relatively understudied area of research. The central amygdala (CeA) plays a critical role in physiological and behavioral responses to somatosensory and drug stimuli and has been implicated in negative reinforcement. Thus, we evaluated the role of the CeA in acupuncture effects on locomotor activity, positive affective states, and DA release in the NAc following acute administration of METH. Acupuncture at acupoint HT7 reduced locomotor activity, 50‐kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), and NAc DA release following systemic injection of METH, which was prevented by electrolytic lesions or optogenetic inhibition of the CeA. Acupuncture alone excited CeA neurons and reversed the suppression of CeA neurons induced by METH. These results suggest that acupuncture can relieve psychomotor responses and positive affective states following METH by inhibiting NAc DA release and this effect is mediated by activation of CeA neurons. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Kim, M. S., Fan, Y., Lee, S. M., Chang, S. C., Kim, H. K., Ryu, Y., Steffensen, S. C., Yang, C. H., & Kim, H. Y. (2021). Role of the central amygdala in acupuncture inhibition of methamphetamine‐induced behaviors in rats. Addiction Biology26(1).

Instructional Psychology & Technology

Flexible learning removes barriers relating to time, place, and pace. While time management skills have been identified as necessary for learners to take advantage of flexible learning, relatively little is known about the temporal dimensions of flexible learning and how gender might relate to temporal flexibility and its perceived benefits. To address this gap, we analyzed data from 380,000 students participating in two massive open online courses to create a model that predicts course completion likelihood from learner time management behaviors and gender. Results supported most a priori assumptions. Successful course completers logged in frequently, devoted longer amounts of time to each session, moved quickly through course materials, and completed coursework early. However, consistent study was associated with lower course completion likelihood, and women benefited more from reduced consistency. These findings suggest that temporal flexibility may especially benefit women. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

Veletsianos, G., Kimmons, R., Larsen, R., & Rogers, J. (2021). Temporal flexibility, gender, and online learning completion. Distance Education42(1), 22–36.


Human agency is typically theorized as a unique form of control or countercontrol in a determinant world. Thus, the nature of world (as a closed, determinant space) is taken for granted, creating a notoriously difficult theoretical problem: formulating a persuasive account of how agency as countercontrol might coherently fit within the world conceived and prioritized in this way. Based on hermeneutic thought, I contend that a primary focus on agency as an immanently meaningful phenomenon obviates this problem and offers possibilities for more effective theorizing. From this hermeneutic perspective, agency is conceptualized as concernful involvement in practices; and a concomitant view of world is conceptualized as an immanently meaningful space of participation. I conclude by revisiting the notion of control and offering a brief account of how it fits within this hermeneutic account of agency. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Yanchar, S. C. (2021). Concern and control in human agency. Theory & Psychology31(1), 24–42.

Reports an error in 'K-12 online learning journal articles: Trends from two decades of scholarship' by Karen T. Arnesen, Joshua Hveem, Cecil R. Short, Richard E. West and Michael K. Barbour (Distance Education, 2019[Jan], Vol 40[1], 32-53). When first published online and in print, Table 1 included errors. This table has now been corrected in the online version. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2019-11022-004). In this study, we examined the research literature in the field of K-12 online learning to identify the leading scholars, journals, top cited articles, research methods, and topics in this field of inquiry. Our research process involved collecting a corpus of journal articles focused on K-12 online and distance learning; categorizing these articles according to their research methodologies; analyzing trends not only in methodologies employed but also in authorship, citations, journals, and topics addressed. We found the field of K-12 online learning to be growing rapidly in recent years with acceleration not only of new articles but especially of new authors. We also found the field began primarily with emphasizing theoretical articles but is now maturing and emphasizing increasingly more data-based articles. We found K-12 online learning scholarship is scattered among many journals, providing rich opportunities for scholars while also making it more difficult to discern trends across the discipline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Arnesen, K. T., Hveem, J., Short, C. R., West, R. E., & Barbour, M. K. (2021). “K-12 online learning journal articles: Trends from two decades of scholarship”: Correction. Distance Education42(1), 177.

In an earlier era of instructional technology, researchers proposed a set of criteria to help practitioners understand what assumptions about their work could help them develop well-designed instruction, as well as what assumptions could lead them to develop rigid instruction that did not characterize the goals they had for their practice. They named these criteria Technology I, II, and III. Technology I presupposed that using physical hardware improved instruction. Technology II presupposed that using formulas or strategies improved instruction. Technology III was the belief that good instruction could consist of many different product or process technologies, but that technology use alone did not define good instruction. Rather, good instruction was the realization of improved systems in which learning could take place.I used a historical case study method to analyze the major themes of Technology I, II, and III, as well as reasons why some practitioners might limit themselves to only Technology I or II. My purpose was to discover how to help instructional technologists better accomplish more of the goals they want to achieve. I compared the original goals of two instructional technologies (programmed instruction and problem-based learning), along with twelve case study reports of actual practice of these technologies, against the criteria for Technology I, II, and III. I found that Technology I, II, and III can describe the goals and practices of instructional technologists. Additionally, I discovered four reasons why instructional technologists may limit themselves to Technology I or II, and therefore might not achieve all the important goals for their practice: (a) distracted focus (or compromised integrity); (b) status quo adherence; (c) solidification; and (d) deliberately chosen Technology I or II. I also discovered three methods to help instructional technologists to avoid limiting themselves and more consistently practice Technology III: (a) legitimate evaluation; (b) adopting guiding principles for practice; and (c) using opinion leaders to disseminate the value of Technology III. This study also provides recommendations to help instructional technologists use Technology III to help them better develop flexible instructional technology that better characterizes their goals for their practice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


McDonald, J. K. (2021). Technology I, II, and III: Criteria for understanding and improving the practice of instructional technology [ProQuest Information & Learning]. In Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering (Vol. 82, Issue 4–B).